NECO 2020 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE OBJ & THEORY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

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*Saturday 14th Nov 2020*
Paper III & II: Objective & Essay – Agricultural Science
10:00am – 12:30pm

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NECO-AGRICULTURE-ANSWERS

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Agriculture-Obj

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*NECO AGRICULTURE ANSWERS*

*(1a)*
i. SOURCE OF FOOD SUPPLY:-Agriculture has been the basic source of food supply for mankind for centuries. Whether a country is underdeveloped, developing, or developed, all nations depend on agriculture for its food. And as the demand for food continues to increase, so does the demand for more land to farm and cultivate food products.

ii. CONTRIBUTION TO NATIONAL INCOME:-Agricultural prosperity has significantly contributed to and fostered the economic advancement of several countries. It’s also been correctly observed that even the leading industrialized countries were once predominantly agricultural.

iii. RELIEF FROM CAPITAL SHORTAGE:-The development of the agricultural sector of developing countries has also helped relieve them from a shortage of capital. Previously, developing countries were more reliant on foreign capital, which usually came with strings attached to them. The agricultural sector requires a lot less capital for development. Thus, it minimizes the growth problem touching on foreign capital.

iv. PRE-REQUISITE FOR RAW MATERIALS:-Besides providing just food products, agricultural advancement has also made this industry a hub for raw materials. The shortage of agricultural products can impact the agro-based industry significantly and usually cause a consequent increase in their product price levels.

v. CREATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE:-Agricultural development subsequently requires the development of other national infrastructures like roads, storage units, transportation railways, market yards, postal services, etc.

(1b)

(i)
Lack of Modernization/Mechanization:
ing,
(ii)land tenure system
(iii). Poor Infrastructure.
(iv). Poor Research and Keeping record
(v) Bad topography

(1c)
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2ai.
*Farm Settlement Scheme*
I. To stimulate small rural farmers to increase their productivity and improve their standard of living.
II.To check land tenure system.
III. To induce rural development thereby, halting the drift to urban areas.

II. *Agro-Service Centres*
I. To supply drugs and vaccines to farmers.
II. To provide expert services to farmers.
III. To provide farm input, like seeds and fertilizers at reduced rates.

2b.
I. The tractor should be services at regular interval.
II. Oil filter should be changed during each service.
III. Always park the tractor in a shed.
IV. Wash or clean the caburator regularly.
V. Fan belts should be replaced or adjusted.
VI. Air filter should be cleared when necessary

2c.
I. Disc plough is capable of working on heavy soil, or tilling and moulding heavy soil.
II. Disc plough makes deeper cuts than mouldboard ploug
III. Disc plough buries weed more completely than mouldboard plough.

Choose only two👇

2d. *BIOGAS*
I. It constitutes a cheap source of power.
II. It can easily be controlled.
III. It can convert chemical power in dung to heat power.

*WIND POWER*
I. It is available everywhere.
II. It is cheap.
III. It can serve as alternative to electrical power

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3ai)
HETEROTROPHISM is the ability to produce organic material only from organic carbon sources obtained from animal or plant biosynthesis.

3aii)
i.biotic components
ii. abiotic components.

3b)

1.Under the terms of the scheme, participants may use land for permanent or rotational fallow, for woodland, or for a range of non-
agricultural uses.

2.There may be other non-agricultural
uses; for instance, land reclamation has been mentioned and forestry uses may be available

3.The committee concluded that the approved non-agricultural uses represent no unacceptable risk to human health.

3ci)
I. Igneous rock are glassy in appearance
II. They are crystalline in structure that is, they contain crystal
III. They do not contain fossils.
IV. They are light and dark in colour.
V. They are resistant to erosion and other elements of climate

3cii)
i. Sandstone
ii. Limestone
iii. Shale.

3d)
i. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops
ii. It helps to maintain landscapes
III. It revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall
III. Irrigation also helps in suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation.

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(4a) loading

(4b)
i) it does not pose any threat to machine
ii) high value crop are grown
iii) drainage is faster and more efficient

(4c)
i) Carbonation
When you think of carbonation, think carbon! Carbonic acid is the culprit when it comes to the carbonation type of chemical weathering. As rain goes through the air and into the ground, it grabs carbon dioxide, creating carbonic acid. This weak acid reacts with the calcium carbonate in stones when it seeps into the cracks.

A stone that is particularly susceptible to carbonation is limestone, which is made of mostly calcium carbonate. Carbonation of limestone creates unique structures like the South China Karst. Karsts are all over the globe and include unique caves, streams, sinkholes and unusual rock formations.

ii)Oxidation
Oxygen causes oxidation. You can think about oxidation like rust on a car. Rust forms when the iron or steel in your car reacts with the oxygen in the air to form iron oxide. The resulting red substance can be quite brittle, so much so that you could literally poke a hole in it with your finger. Rocks with iron can go through the same process, too.

Minerals with high iron content are affected by oxidation including pyroxene and amphibole. The oxidation gives these rocks a reddish look, very similar to the patina on a car

iii) Hydration
This isn’t the hydration used in your body, but it’s similar. Hydration is a type of chemical weathering where water reacts chemically with the rock, modifying its chemical structure.

One example of mineral hydration is when H2O (water) is added to CaSO4 (calcium sulfate) to create CaSO4+2H2O (calcium sulfate dihydrate). It changes from anhydrite to gypsum.

The addition of the water to the anhydrite chemically reacts to create a totally new compound in gypsum. Hydration has led, in part, to the gypsum sand dunes at White Sands National Monument.

iv) Hydrolysis
Water can add to a material to make a new material, or it can dissolve a material to change it. In hydrolysis, the acid in the water works to dissolve minerals within specific rocks.

Examples of hydrolysis in action include turning feldspar into clay and making sodium minerals into saltwater solutions. The flare slopes of Australia are partly created by hydrolysis.

(4d)

I ; Nitrogen
Ii phosphorus and potassium

(4e)

(i)organic matter which is made from carbon helps to replenish soil nutrient.
(ii) it help to purify the atmosphere and also to maintain atmospheric level of carbon dioxide.
(iii) it provide carbon which is the major building block of all organic matter
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(5a)
Crop Improvement can be define as the process of transferring an inherited superiority from one domesticated animal to another of the same species

(5aii)
(a)To improve the quality of produce.
(B)To increase crop yield.
(C)To adapt crops to adverse climatic conditions.
(D) To induce resistance to pests and diseases in crop plants.
(E)To conserve land resources.
(F)To breed crops with uniform growth and maturity.

(5b)
{Pick any two}
(i) Choice of site.
(ii)Planting materials.
(iii)Method of cultivation.
(iv)Use of prepared beds.
(v)Direct sowing into the soil.
(vi) Use of nylon bags.

(5c)
(i) scarcity of land (ii) Ove population (iii) unemployment (iv) Government policy
(v) Low standard of living.

(5d)
(i) budding
(ii)layering
(iii)grafting
(iv)cuttings

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(6ai)
Pasture can be defined as a piece of land or field containing grass for sheep, goat, cattle to eat as it grows.

(6aii) (choose 3)

i. It has a high leafy grass

ii. It is about 3-5m tall

iii. It has an erect grass

iv. It is good for silage preparation

v. It is vigorously and aggressive in nature

(6b) (pick 2 👇)

i. Step 1: Vertical incisions.
Make four 3-inch vertical incisions through the root stock’s bark, starting at the top.

ii. Step 2: Prepare the scion

iii. Step 3: Connect the scion

iv. Step 4: Secure the graft

v. Step 5: Protect the graft

vi. Step 6: Secure the plastic

vii. Step 7: 34. with fences.

(6c)
Typing in progress by S.S.T

(6d)
i) Wind
ii) explosive mechanism
iii)man or animal

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(7a)
Brooding in poultry production : means keeping chicks warm and comfortable. When your baby chicks arrive they will need special car

(7b)
(i). Disease control. This is accomplished by preventing skin contact such as in natural service.
(ii). Decreases chances of injury. Semen is generally only collected every other day in an AI programme, so there is much less chance for injury
(iii). men can be collected from stallions with problems.
(iv). Semen is evaluated each time it is collected.
(v). Permits breeding of mares with problems.

(7c)
(i) rangeland protection
(ii) promising site selection with annual rainfall 100 – 200 mm, Gentle slope 2 – 10%, soil depth > 50 cm .
(iii) using of water harvesting techniques.
(iv) fodder shrubs planting.

(7d)
(i) Location of apiaries far away from human dewellin
(ii) Putting warning symbols near apiaries:
(iii) Wearing of protective clothing
(iv) Use of smokers:

(7e)
(i) Poultry house management
(ii) Prophylactic application of anticoccidials
(iii) Vaccines
(iv) Fats
(v)Naturally alternatives to prevent Coccidiosis
(vi) Essential oil
(vii) Antioxidants

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(8a)
i) maintain a sustainable environment
ii) keep good and healthy livestock,
iii) to be a good livestock keeper

(8b) typing in progress by S.S.T

(8c)
i) Control of predator: Predator like bird and snake should be presented from entry Into the pond because they could eat up the fish in the pond. This can be done by keeping the pond surrounding clean

ii) Constant water supply: the pond should always be filled with water and any leakages repaired

iii) Regular application of fertilizer: This should be done once in a month to promote the growth of fish food(Plankton) in the pond

8d)

1)
Rinderpest virus

2)
Consumption of contaminated water

3)i} fever
ii} diarrhea

4)i} Avoid drinking contaminated water
ii} Avoid direct contact and via aaerosolised

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